Searching for Star Clusters

The FSR Cluster Sample

Intro:

Facilitating the 2MASS database and parallel computing techniques we have searched for unknown star clusters in the Milky Way. We discovered 1021 new candidates for star clusters, and estimated a contamination from star density enhancements of about 50%. See our paper Froebrich, Scholz, Raftery (2007) for all the details of the method and our results.

Press:

Follow up observations of our candidate cluster FSR1735 revealt that this is most probably a so far unknown globular cluster in the Milky Way. See our paper Froebrich et al. (2007b) for all the details or the ESO Press Release on the discovery.
We also followed up FSR0190. This object turned out to be an old galactic cluster with an age of at least 7Gyr and a large number of red giants. See our Paper Froebrich et al. (2008) or the UKIRT Newsletter for all the details.

Cluster Data:

We have created for all new cluster candidates 2MASS colour images. Those images are generated automatically, hence in some cases the colours are not perfect and/or the actual cluster candidate is not in the centre of the image.

See here for the images of our 473 candidates that are probably unknown star clusters (76% of the verified FSR clusters belong to this group).
Here we present the images of the remaining 548 objects that are most probably just star density enhancements.
This page contains the data for all FSR clusters, including the already known objects (password required).

Classification:

Some of our candidates have now been classified properly. If there are more than one reference, the latest is listed first.
There are Globular Clusters (5), Open Clusters (136), Embedded Clusters (20), Objects not listed as new in the FSR catalogue and No Clusters (61).

The Globular Cluster (candidates):

NumberClassificationReferenceNotes
0190old OpCl/GlClFroebrich et al. 2007 >7Gyrs, Palomar Type GlCl?
old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 7Gyr
0584embedded Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI20
GlCl? Bica et al. 2007 The closest known GlCl?
1716old OpCl/GlClFroebrich et al. 2008 >2Gyrs
old OpCl Bonatto & Bica 2008 ≥7Gyr
old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 2Gyr
1735GlCl? Froebrich et al. 2008 >8Gyrs
GlCl? Froebrich et al. 2007 inner Galaxy GlCl?
GlCl? Froebrich et al. 2010 10Gyr
1767GlCl Bonatto et al. 2009  
no cluster Froebrich et al. 2008  
GlCl Bonatto et al. 2007 The 2nd closest known GlCl!

The Open Cluster (candidates):

NumberClassificationReferenceNotes
0010OpCl? Bica et al. 2008 Intermediate Age
0031embedded Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI125
old OpCl Bonatto & Bica 2007 SAI125, 1.1Gyrs
0039old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 1Gyr
0050old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 5Gyr
0070old OpCl Bica et al. 2008 5Gyrs
0076old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 1Gyr
0088OpCl Froebrich et al. 2008 0.5Gyrs
0089OpCl Froebrich et al. 2008 1.0Gyrs
old OpCl Bonatto & Bica 2007 1.0Gyrs
0098OpCl? Bica et al. 2008 old?
0101OpCl Camargo et al. 2009 0.9Gyrs
old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 1Gyr
0119no cluster Bica et al. 2008  
old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 2.5Gyr
0123OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 0.5Gyr
0124old OpCl Bica et al. 2008 SAI127, 1.0Gyrs
old OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI127, 1.3Gyrs
old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 1.3Gyr
0131OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 0.6Gyr
0133OpCl Bica et al. 2008 SAI128, 0.6Gyrs
OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI128, 220Myrs
0134OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 0.8Gyr
0154old OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI131, 1.1Gyrs
0158OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI130, <200Myrs
0160OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI129, 890Myrs
0162OpCl Camargo et al. 2009 0.2Gyrs
0167old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 1Gyr
0170old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 1Gyr
0178old OpCl Camargo et al. 2009 1.5Gyrs
old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 1.6Gyr
0184old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 1.6Gyr
0190old OpCl/GlClFroebrich et al. 2007 >7Gyrs, Palomar Type GlCl?
old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 7Gyr
0198embedded Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI134
young OpCl Camargo et al. 2009 SAI134, 10Myrs
0214OpCl Warren & Cole 2008 IC1311, 1.1Gyr, not identified in Warren & Cole 2008
0222old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 1.6Gyr
0275old OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI138, 1.8Gyrs
old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 SAI138, 1Gyr
0282old OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI140, 1.1Gyrs
old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 SAI140, 1.1Gyr
0304OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 0.4Gyr
0333old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 1.1Gyr
0336OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI145, 800Myrs
0338OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 0.4Gyr
0342old OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI146, 1.1Gyrs
old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 SAI146, 1.1Gyr
0358old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2008 Kirkpatrick1, 5Gyr, originally found here
0385OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 0.8Gyr
0386old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 1.1Gyr
0394old OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI147, 2.5Gyrs
old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 SAI147, 1.1Gyr
0430OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI148, 110Myrs
0441OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI150, 350Myrs
0460old OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI153, 1.6Gyrs
old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 SAI153, 1.1Gyr
0465old OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI151, 1.6Gyrs
0480old OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI3, 1.6Gyrs
old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 SAI3, 1.1Gyr
0494old OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI5, 1.3Gyrs
0503old OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI7, 2.5Gyrs
0505old OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI8, 1.4Gyrs
0508old OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI9, 1.3Gyrs
0524old OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI11, 1.3Gyrs
0536OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI13, <160Myrs
0634old OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI29, 1.0Gyrs
0647young OpCl Negueruela & Marco 2008Alicante1 (not identified in Negueruela & Marco 2008), <4Myr
0660old OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI34, 1.3Gyrs
0667OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 0.8Gyr
0687old OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI37, 1.4Gyrs
0705old OpCl Bonatto & Bica 2008 NGC1798, Berkeley16, 1.5Gyr
0716OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI44, 0.9Gyrs
0727old OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI45, 1.6Gyrs
0729old OpCl Bonatto & Bica 2008 NGC1883, Collinder64, 1.0Gyr
0730old OpCl Bonatto & Bica 2008 NGC2126, Melotte39, Collinder78, 1.2Gyr
0735OpCl Camargo et al. 2010 500Myr
0756OpCl Bonatto & Bica 2008 0.3Gyr
0788OpCl Kirsanova et al. 2008 S235 East1, not identified in Kirsanova et al. 2008
0790old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 2Gyr
0793OpCl Bonatto & Bica 2008 Berkeley69, 0.9Gyr
0795OpCl Koposov et al. 2008 Koposov10, <0.4Gyr
0802OpCl Koposov et al. 2008 Koposov12, 0.8Gyr
0810old OpCl Bonatto & Bica 2008 Berkeley71, 1.0Gyr
0814OpCl Bonatto & Bica 2008 Koposov36, 30Myr
OpCl Koposov et al. 2008 Koposov36, <0.22Gyr, not identified in Koposov et al. 2008
0825OpCl Camargo et al. 2010 Czernik22, Basel4, 200Myr
0828old OpCl Koposov et al. 2008 Koposov43, 2Gyr, wrongly identified as FSR848 in Koposov et al. 2008
old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 Koposov43, 1.6Gyr
0834old OpCl Bonatto & Bica 2008 Czernik23, 4.5Gyr
old OpCl Bonatto & Bica 2008 Czernik23, 5Gyr
0852OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI56, 0.8Gyrs
old OpCl Camargo et al. 2010 SAI56, 1Gyr
0856OpCl Koposov et al. 2008 Koposov53, <0.32Gyr, not identified in Koposov et al. 2008
0869old OpCl Koposov et al. 2008 Koposov63, 1.4Gyr
old OpCl Bonatto & Bica 2008 Koposov63, 1.5Gyr
0881OpCl Camargo et al. 2010 Czernik24
0884uncertain Bonatto & Bica 2008 deeper photometry needed
old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 1Gyr
0904OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI61, 0.6Gyrs
OpCl Camargo et al. 2010 SAI61, 20Myr
0911OpCl Bica et al. 2008 New Cluster 1 in Bochum 1, 7Myr
uncertain Bonatto & Bica 2008  
0917old OpCl Bonatto & Bica 2008 Berkeley23, 1.2Gyr
0921OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI58, 300Myrs
uncertain Camargo et al. 2010  
0923OpCl Bonatto & Bica 2008 0.5Gyr
0932OpCl Bonatto & Bica 2008 SAI57, 0.15Gyr
OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI57, 0.8Gyrs
0938OpCl Camargo et al. 2010 NGC2234, 50Myr
0941OpCl Camargo et al. 2010 500Myr
0942old OpCl Bonatto & Bica 2008 SAI59, 1.0Gyr
old OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI59, 1.0Gyrs
old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 SAI59, 1Gyr
0948old OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI64, 1.0Gyrs
OpCl Bonatto & Bica 2008 SAI64, 30Myr
0953OpCl Camargo et al. 2010 500Myr
0963OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 0.5Gyr
0974OpCl Bonatto & Bica 2008 0.4Gyr
0979OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI65, 280Myrs
0985OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI62, <400Myrs
0987OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI63, 450Myrs
1063OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI66, <400Myrs
1085OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI71, <400Myrs
1113old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 3.2Gyr
1125old OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI70, <1.3Gyrs
1150OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI74, <200Myrs
1171old OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI73, 3.1Gyrs
1253OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI76, 250Myrs
1275old OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI77, 2.5Gyrs
1298old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 1.6Gyr
1347OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI79, <630Myrs
1361old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 1Gyr
1378OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI85, 630Myrs
1380OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI87, <450Myrs
1387OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI89, <630Myrs
1399OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 0.25Gyr
1402old OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI102, 4.0Gyrs
1415old OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI93, 1.8Gyrs
old OpCl Momany et al. 2008 SAI93, 2.5Gyr
old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 SAI93, 2.5Gyr
1430old OpCl Camargo et al. 2009 SAI96, 1.0Gyrs
OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI96, 700Myrs
1435old OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI98, 5.6Gyrs
1436OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI92, 100Myrs
1450old OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI100, 1.3Gyrs
1454old OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI95, 1.4Gyrs
1460old OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI103, 2.0Gyrs
1463old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 1Gyr
1471old OpCl Camargo et al. 2009 1.0Gyrs
1509OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI110, 560Myrs
1521old OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI111, 2.8Gyrs
old OpCl Bonatto & Bica 2008 SAI111, 2.0Gyr
old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 SAI111, 2.8Gyr
1530young OpCl Froebrich et al. 2008 ≤4Myrs
1555old OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI114, 1.8Gyrs
old OpCl Bonatto & Bica 2008 SAI114, 1.5Gyr
old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 SAI114, 2.5Gyr
1586OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI115, 450Myrs
OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 SAI115, 0.8Gyr
1603old OpCl Bica & Bonatto 2008 Ruprecht 101, 1.0Gyr
1644OpCl Bica et al. 2008 Harvard8, Cr268, 0.6Gyrs
1657old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 1Gyr
1663OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI117, 800Myrs
1686OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI121, 890Myrs
1712OpCl Froebrich et al. 2008 0.8Gyrs
1716old OpCl/GlClFroebrich et al. 2008 >2Gyrs
old OpCl Bonatto & Bica 2008 ≥7Gyr
old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 2Gyr
1723OpCl Bica et al. 2008 ESO275SC1, 0.8Gyrs
1737old OpCl Bica et al. 2008 >5Gyrs
1740OpCl? Bica et al. 2008 old?
1744old OpCl Bonatto & Bica 2007 SAI124, 1.0Gyr
OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI124, 700Myrs
old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 SAI124, 1Gyr
1750OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 0.8Gyr
1769OpCl? Bica et al. 2008 old?

The Embedded Cluster (candidates):

NumberClassificationReferenceNotes
0031embedded Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI125
old OpCl Bonatto & Bica 2007 SAI125, 1.1Gyrs
0198embedded Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI134
young OpCl Camargo et al. 2009 SAI134, 10Myrs
0469embedded Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI152
0584embedded Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI20
GlCl? Bica et al. 2007 The closest known GlCl?
0655embedded Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI32
embedded Straizys & Kazlauskas 2010SAI32
0696embedded Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI39
0699embedded Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI38
0784embedded Koposov et al. 2008 Koposov7
0807embedded Camargo et al. 2010 5Myr
0812embedded Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI52
embedded Camargo et al. 2010 SAI52, 10Myr
0826embedded Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI55
embedded Camargo et al. 2010 SAI55, 10Myr
0839embedded Koposov et al. 2008 Koposov41
0849embedded Koposov et al. 2008 Koposov58
0855embedded Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI54
0874embedded Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI53
0955embedded Camargo et al. 2010 10Myr
1188embedded Bonatto & Bica 2010 vdB 92, 4Myr
1432embedded Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI97
1662embedded Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI119
1755embedded? Bica & Bonatto 2008

Not in FSR list of new clusters:

NumberClassificationReferenceNotes
1570young OpCl Froebrich et al. 2008 8Myrs
young OpCl Pasquali et al. 2008 Teutsch143a, >4Myrs

Not a cluster:

NumberClassificationReferenceNotes
0002no cluster Froebrich et al. 2008  
0023no cluster Froebrich et al. 2008  
0041no cluster Bica et al. 2008  
0091no cluster Bica et al. 2008  
0094no cluster Froebrich et al. 2008  
0114no cluster Bica et al. 2008  
0119no cluster Bica et al. 2008  
old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 2.5Gyr
0128no cluster Bica et al. 2008  
0714field fluctuationCamargo et al. 2010  
0717field fluctuationCamargo et al. 2010  
0719field fluctuationCamargo et al. 2010  
0721field fluctuationCamargo et al. 2010  
0723field fluctuationCamargo et al. 2010  
0732field fluctuationCamargo et al. 2010  
0733field fluctuationCamargo et al. 2010  
0744no cluster Bonatto & Bica 2008  
0753field fluctuationCamargo et al. 2010  
0773uncertain Bonatto & Bica 2008 deeper photometry needed
0775field fluctuationCamargo et al. 2010  
0776no cluster Bonatto & Bica 2008  
0778field fluctuationCamargo et al. 2010  
0801no cluster Bonatto & Bica 2008  
0815uncertain Camargo et al. 2010  
0821field fluctuationCamargo et al. 2010  
0841no cluster Bonatto & Bica 2008  
0851uncertain Bonatto & Bica 2008 depper photometry needed
0855uncertain Bonatto & Bica 2008 deeper photometry needed
0858field fluctuationCamargo et al. 2010  
0882uncertain Bonatto & Bica 2008 deeper photometry needed
0883uncertain Camargo et al. 2010  
0884uncertain Bonatto & Bica 2008 deeper photometry needed
old OpCl Froebrich et al. 2010 1Gyr
0891field fluctuationCamargo et al. 2010  
0894no cluster Bonatto & Bica 2008  
0900field fluctuationCamargo et al. 2010  
0902uncertain Camargo et al. 2010  
0903field fluctuationCamargo et al. 2010  
0906field fluctuationCamargo et al. 2010  
0921OpCl Glushkova et al. 2010 SAI58, 300Myrs
uncertain Camargo et al. 2010  
0924field fluctuationCamargo et al. 2010  
0927no cluster Bonatto & Bica 2008  
0928field fluctuationCamargo et al. 2010  
0931field fluctuationCamargo et al. 2010  
0933field fluctuationCamargo et al. 2010  
0936field fluctuationCamargo et al. 2010  
0937field fluctuationCamargo et al. 2010  
0939field fluctuationCamargo et al. 2010  
0940field fluctuationCamargo et al. 2010  
0951uncertain Camargo et al. 2010  
0952field fluctuationCamargo et al. 2010  
0956no cluster Bonatto & Bica 2008  
0960field fluctuationCamargo et al. 2010  
0962field fluctuationCamargo et al. 2010  
0975field fluctuationCamargo et al. 2010  
1527no cluster Froebrich et al. 2008  
1635no cluster Bica et al. 2008  
1647no cluster Bica et al. 2008  
1659no cluster Froebrich et al. 2008  
1685no cluster Bica et al. 2008  
1695no cluster Bica et al. 2008  
1754no cluster Froebrich et al. 2008  
OpCl? Bica et al. 2008 2 clusters?
1767GlCl Bonatto et al. 2009  
GlCl Bonatto et al. 2007 The 2nd closest known GlCl!
no cluster Froebrich et al. 2008  


We are working on adding more information/better classification of all the objects....

Related Pages:

WEBDA Database
OPEN CLUSTERS AND GALACTIC STRUCTURE
SAI Open Clusters Catalog